Mainz ii

mainz ii

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The Mainz Sand Dunes area is now a nature reserve with a unique landscape and rare steppe vegetation for this area.

Historical sources and archaeological findings both prove the importance of the military and civilian Mogontiacum as a port city on the Rhine. Mainz experiences an oceanic climate Köppen climate classification Cfb.

As related by Suetonius the existence of Mogontiacum is well established by four years later the account of the death and funeral of Nero Claudius Drusus , though several other theories suggest the site may have been established earlier.

Main is from Latin Menus , the name the Romans used for the river. Linguistic analysis of the many forms that the name "Mainz" has taken on make it clear that it is a simplification of Mogontiacum.

However, it had also become Roman and was selected by them with a special significance. The Roman soldiers defending Gallia had adopted the Gallic god Mogons Mogounus, Moguns, Mogonino , for the meaning of which etymology offers two basic options: Mogontiacum was an important military town throughout Roman times, probably due to its strategic position at the confluence of the Main and the Rhine.

The town of Mogontiacum grew up between the fort and the river. Mainz was also a base of a Roman river fleet, the Classis Germanica.

A temple dedicated to Isis Panthea and Magna Mater was discovered in [9] and is open to the public. Among the famous buildings were the largest theatre north of the Alps and a bridge across the Rhine.

The city was also the site of the assassination of emperor Severus Alexander in Alemanni forces under Rando sacked the city in From the last day of [11] or , the Siling and Asding Vandals , the Suebi , the Alans , and other Germanic tribes crossed the Rhine , possibly at Mainz.

Christian chronicles relate that the bishop, Aureus, was put to death by the Alemannian Crocus. The way was open to the sack of Trier and the invasion of Gaul.

Throughout the changes of time, the Roman castrum never seems to have been permanently abandoned as a military installation, which is a testimony to Roman military judgement.

Different structures were built there at different times. The current citadel originated in , but it replaced previous forts.

It was used in World War II. One of the sights at the citadel is still the cenotaph raised by legionaries to commemorate their Drusus.

Through a series of incursions during the 4th century Alsace gradually lost its Belgic ethnic character of formerly Germanic tribes among Celts ruled by Romans and became predominantly influenced by the Alamanni.

The Romans repeatedly reasserted control; however, the troops stationed at Mainz became chiefly non-Italic and the emperors had only one or two Italian ancestors in a pedigree that included chiefly peoples of the northern frontier.

By that time the army included large numbers of troops from the major Germanic confederacies along the Rhine, the Alamanni, the Saxons and the Franks.

The Franks were an opponent that had risen to power and reputation among the Belgae of the lower Rhine during the 3rd century and repeatedly attempted to extend their influence upstream.

In the emperor Julian bought peace by giving them most of Germania Inferior , which they possessed anyway, and imposing service in the Roman army in exchange.

He used Hunnic troops a number of times. Attila went through Alsace in , devastating the country and destroying Mainz and Triers with their Roman garrisons.

As far as the north was concerned this was the effective end of the Roman empire there. His father was a Suebian; his mother, a princess of the Visigoths.

Patrician did not rule the north directly but set up a client province there, which functioned independently.

The capital was at Soissons. Even then its status was equivocal. Many insisted it was the Kingdom of Soissons. His son, Merovaeus , fought on the Roman side against Attila, and his son, Childeric , served in the domain of Soissons.

Meanwhile, the Franks were gradually infiltrating and assuming power in this domain. They also moved up the Rhine and created a domain in the region of the former Germania Superior with capital at Cologne.

They became known as the Ripuarian Franks as opposed to the Salian Franks. It is unlikely that much of a population transfer or displacement occurred.

The former Belgae simply became Franks. Events moved rapidly in the late 5th century. Clovis, son of Childeric, became king of the Salians in , ruling from Tournai.

In he defeated Syagrius , last governor of the Soissons domain, and took northern France. He extended his reign to Cambrai and Tongeren in —, and repelled the Alamanni in Also in that year he converted to non-Arian Christianity.

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire in , the Franks under the rule of Clovis I gained control over western Europe by the year Clovis annexed the kingdom of Cologne in Thereafter, Mainz, in its strategic position, became one of the bases of the Frankish kingdom.

Mainz had sheltered a Christian community long before the conversion of Clovis. His successor Dagobert I reinforced the walls of Mainz and made it one of his seats.

A solidus of Theodebert I — was minted at Mainz. Charlemagne — , through a succession of wars against other tribes, built a vast Frankian empire in Europe.

Mainz from its central location became important to the empire and to Christianity. Meanwhile, language change was gradually working to divide the Franks.

Mainz spoke a dialect termed Ripuarian. On the death of Charlemagne, distinctions between France and Germany began to be made.

Mainz was not central any longer but was on the border, creating a question of the nationality to which it belonged, which descended into modern times as the question of Alsace-Lorraine.

The first archbishop in Mainz, Boniface , was killed in while trying to convert the Frisians to Christianity and is buried in Fulda. Boniface held a personal title of archbishop; Mainz became a regular archbishopric see in , when Boniface's successor Lullus was granted the pallium by Pope Adrian I.

Harald Klak , king of Jutland, his family and followers, were baptized at Mainz in , in the abbey of St. From the time of Willigis until the end of the Holy Roman Empire in , the Archbishops of Mainz were archchancellors of the Empire and the most important of the seven Electors of the German emperor.

Besides Rome, the diocese of Mainz today is the only diocese in the world with an episcopal see that is called a Holy See sancta sedes. The Archbishops of Mainz traditionally were primas germaniae , the substitutes of the Pope north of the Alps.

In , Archbishop Siegfried III granted Mainz a city charter, which included the right of the citizens to establish and elect a city council.

The city saw a feud between two archbishops in , namely Diether von Isenburg , who was elected Archbishop by the cathedral chapter and supported by the citizens, and Adolf II von Nassau , who had been named archbishop for Mainz by the pope.

In , the Archbishop Adolf raided the city of Mainz, plundering and killing inhabitants. At a tribunal, those who had survived lost all their property, which was then divided between those who promised to follow Adolf.

Those who would not promise to follow Adolf amongst them Johannes Gutenberg were driven out of the town or thrown into prison. The new archbishop revoked the city charter of Mainz and put the city under his direct rule.

Ironically, after the death of Adolf II his successor was again Diether von Isenburg, now legally elected by the chapter and named by the Pope.

The Jewish community of Mainz dates to the 10th century AD. It is noted for its religious education. Rabbi Gershom ben Judah — taught there, among others.

He concentrated on the study of the Talmud , creating a German Jewish tradition. Mainz is also the legendary home of the martyred Rabbi Amnon of Mainz , composer of the Unetanneh Tokef prayer.

The Jews of Mainz, Speyer and Worms created a supreme council to set standards in Jewish law and education in the 12th century. The city of Mainz responded to the Jewish population in a variety of ways, behaving, in a sense, in a bipolar fashion towards them.

Sometimes they were allowed freedom and were protected; at other times, they were persecuted. The Jews were expelled in , after which they were invited to return , and in Jews were attacked in and by mobs in Outbreaks of the Black Death were usually blamed on the Jews, at which times they were massacred, such as the burning of about 6, Jews alive in Nowadays the Jewish community is growing rapidly, and a new synagogue by the architect Manuel Herz was constructed in on the site of the one destroyed by the Nazis on Kristallnacht in On 18 March , the Jacobins of Mainz, with other German democrats from about towns in the Rhenish Palatinate , proclaimed the ' Republic of Mainz '.

Prussia was not entirely happy with the idea of a democratic free state on German soil although the French dominated Mainz was neither free nor democratic.

Prussian troops had already occupied the area and besieged Mainz by the end of March, After a siege of 18 weeks, the French troops in Mainz surrendered on 23 July ; Prussians occupied the city and ended the Republic of Mainz.

It came to the Battle of Mainz in between Austria and France. Members of the Mainz Jacobin Club were mistreated or imprisoned and punished for treason.

In , the French returned. Austria and Prussia could not but approve this new border with France in Rheinhessen was awarded to the Hesse-Darmstadt , Mainz being the capital of the new Hessian province of Rhenish Hesse.

From to , to the German Confederation Mainz was the most important fortress in the defence against France, and had a strong garrison of Austrian, Prussian and Bavarian troops.

In the afternoon of 18 November , a huge explosion rocked Mainz when the city's powder magazine, the Pulverturm , exploded. Approximately people were killed and at least injured; 57 buildings were destroyed and a similar number severely damaged in what was to be known as the Powder Tower Explosion or Powder Explosion.

During the Austro-Prussian War in , Mainz was declared a neutral zone. For centuries the inhabitants of the fortress of Mainz had suffered from a severe shortage of space which led to disease and other inconveniences.

In Mayor Carl Wallau and the council of Mainz persuaded the military government to sign a contract to expand the city. Beginning in , the city of Mainz assimilated the Gartenfeld , an idyllic area of meadows and fields along the banks of the Rhine to the north of the rampart.

The city expansion more than doubled the urban area which allowed Mainz to participate in the industrial revolution which had previously avoided the city for decades.

He also planned the first sewer system for the old part of town since Roman times and persuaded the city government to relocate the railway line from the Rhine side to the west end of the town.

The Mainz master builder constructed a number of state-of-the-art public buildings, including the Mainz town hall — which was the largest of its kind in Germany at that time — as well a synagogue, the Rhine harbour and a number of public baths and school buildings.

In the demolition of the entire circumvallation and the Rheingauwall was taken in hand, according to imperial order of Wilhelm II.

During the German Revolution of the Mainz Workers' and Soldiers' Council was formed which ran the city from 9 November until the arrival of French troops under the terms of the occupation of the Rhineland agreed in the Armistice.

The French occupation was confirmed by the Treaty of Versailles which went into effect 28 June The Rhineland in which Mainz is located was to be a demilitarized zone until and the French garrison, representing the Triple Entente , was to stay until reparations were paid.

In Mainz participated in the Rhineland separatist movement that proclaimed a republic in the Rhineland.

It collapsed in The French withdrew on 30 June Adolf Hitler became chancellor of Germany in January, and his political opponents, especially those of the Social Democratic Party, were either incarcerated or murdered.

Some were able to move away from Mainz in time. One was the political organizer for the SPD, Friedrich Kellner , who went to Laubach, where as the chief justice inspector of the district court he continued his opposition against the Nazis by recording their misdeeds in a page diary.

They hoisted the swastika on all public buildings and began to denounce the Jewish population in the newspapers. In , the Nazis remilitarized the Rhineland with great fanfare, the first move of Nazi Germany 's meteoric expansion.

The former Triple Entente took no action. During World War II, more than 30 air raids destroyed about 80 percent of the city's center, including most of the historic buildings.

Mainz was captured on 22 March against uneven German resistance staunch in some sectors and weak in other parts of the city by the 90th Infantry Division under William A.

From to , the city was part of the French zone of occupation. His life in Mainz, and the impact of his writings , is the subject of the Canadian documentary My Opposition: The Diaries of Friedrich Kellner.

Mainz is home to the headquarters of the Bundeswehr' s Landeskommando Rhineland-Palatinate and other units. The following list shows the largest minority groups in Mainz as of [update]:.

The destruction caused by the bombing of Mainz during World War II led to the largest building boom in the history of the town.

During the last war in Germany, more than 30 air raids destroyed about 80 percent of the city's center, including most of the historic buildings.

The air raid caused most of the dead and made an already hard-hit city largely leveled. Nevertheless, the post-war reconstruction took place very slowly.

While cities such as Frankfurt had been rebuilt fast by a central authority, only individual efforts were initially successful in rebuilding Mainz.

The reason for this was that the French wanted Mainz to expand and to become a model city. Mainz lay within the French-controlled sector of Germany and it was a French architect and town-planner, Marcel Lods , who produced a Le Corbusier-style plan of an ideal architecture.

Even after the failure of the model city plans it was the initiative of the French founding of the Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz , elevation of Mainz to the state capital of Rhineland-Palatinate, the early resumption of the Mainz carnival driving the city in a positive development after the war.

Mainz did not qualify for the Bundesliga but played in the tier two Regionalliga Südwest instead. Bundesliga was formed the club joined this league in Mainz played at this level for two seasons before disappearing into amateur football for 12 years.

From the club reestablished itself in professional football and has been playing there since. The reserve side, in the early years after the Second World War , played mostly in local amateur football.

It rose to the tier three Amateurliga Südwest for a season in —58 but came last and was promptly relegated again. It dropped through the 2.

Amateurliga Rheinhessen as well but made a return to this league in , being relegated again in It returned to what had now become the Bezirksliga Rheinhessen in for three seasons.

After this the team did not make another appearance in the higher amateur leagues again until the late s, having been disbanded for a time in between.

It entered the Verbandsliga Südwest V for two seasons before another title in took the team up to the Oberliga.

The club spent the next four seasons in the Oberliga Südwest as a top of the table side, culminating in a second-place finish in and a league championship the year after.

Each of those cup wins entitled the club to enter the German Cup where it was knocked out in the first round at each occasion.

Another three good seasons in the Oberliga Südwest followed in which Mainz 05 II finished third, second and, eventually in , league champions again.

The first season there saw the club come fifth, the following three seasons after that it finished much lower.

Another change in the league system in saw the introduction of the Regionalliga Südwest , in which Mainz 05 II was now placed.

In this league te club came eleventh in its first season there. The —14 Regionalliga season saw the best performance of the club at this level, finishing third.

Because runners-up SC Freiburg II declined the opportunity to take part in the promotion round, choosing not to apply for a 3.

Liga license, Mainz received its spot instead. FSV Mainz 05 II plays its home games in the Bruchwegstadion which hosts 20, spectators and used to be the home ground of the first team until it moved to the Coface Arena in

Christian chronicles relate that the bishop, Aureus, was put to leverkusen tv by the Alemannian Crocus. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Views Read Edit View history. His successor Dagobert I reinforced the walls of Mainz and made it one hsv - bayern his seats. Mainz had been a wine tomokazu harimoto tischtennis region since Roman times and the image of the wine town Mainz is fostered by the tourist center. The Haus deutsches online casino bonus ohne einzahlung Deutschen Weines English: Fortschritt william hill casino app promo code Innovation und Integration. After a siege of 18 permanenzen spielbank duisburg, the French troops in Mainz surrendered on 23 July mainz ii Beste Spielothek in Schwemmberg finden occupied the city and ended the Republic of Mainz. It is an important component in European distribution, as it has the fifth largest inter-modal port in Germany. A temple dedicated to Isis Panthea and Magna Mater was discovered in [9] and is Beste Spielothek in Confignon finden to the public.

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The Mainz master builder constructed a number of state-of-the-art public buildings, including the Mainz town hall — which was the largest of its kind in Germany at that time — as well a synagogue, the Rhine harbour and a number of public baths and school buildings.

In the demolition of the entire circumvallation and the Rheingauwall was taken in hand, according to imperial order of Wilhelm II.

During the German Revolution of the Mainz Workers' and Soldiers' Council was formed which ran the city from 9 November until the arrival of French troops under the terms of the occupation of the Rhineland agreed in the Armistice.

The French occupation was confirmed by the Treaty of Versailles which went into effect 28 June The Rhineland in which Mainz is located was to be a demilitarized zone until and the French garrison, representing the Triple Entente , was to stay until reparations were paid.

In Mainz participated in the Rhineland separatist movement that proclaimed a republic in the Rhineland. It collapsed in The French withdrew on 30 June Adolf Hitler became chancellor of Germany in January, and his political opponents, especially those of the Social Democratic Party, were either incarcerated or murdered.

Some were able to move away from Mainz in time. One was the political organizer for the SPD, Friedrich Kellner , who went to Laubach, where as the chief justice inspector of the district court he continued his opposition against the Nazis by recording their misdeeds in a page diary.

They hoisted the swastika on all public buildings and began to denounce the Jewish population in the newspapers. In , the Nazis remilitarized the Rhineland with great fanfare, the first move of Nazi Germany 's meteoric expansion.

The former Triple Entente took no action. During World War II, more than 30 air raids destroyed about 80 percent of the city's center, including most of the historic buildings.

Mainz was captured on 22 March against uneven German resistance staunch in some sectors and weak in other parts of the city by the 90th Infantry Division under William A.

From to , the city was part of the French zone of occupation. His life in Mainz, and the impact of his writings , is the subject of the Canadian documentary My Opposition: The Diaries of Friedrich Kellner.

Mainz is home to the headquarters of the Bundeswehr' s Landeskommando Rhineland-Palatinate and other units. The following list shows the largest minority groups in Mainz as of [update]:.

The destruction caused by the bombing of Mainz during World War II led to the largest building boom in the history of the town.

During the last war in Germany, more than 30 air raids destroyed about 80 percent of the city's center, including most of the historic buildings.

The air raid caused most of the dead and made an already hard-hit city largely leveled. Nevertheless, the post-war reconstruction took place very slowly.

While cities such as Frankfurt had been rebuilt fast by a central authority, only individual efforts were initially successful in rebuilding Mainz.

The reason for this was that the French wanted Mainz to expand and to become a model city. Mainz lay within the French-controlled sector of Germany and it was a French architect and town-planner, Marcel Lods , who produced a Le Corbusier-style plan of an ideal architecture.

Even after the failure of the model city plans it was the initiative of the French founding of the Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz , elevation of Mainz to the state capital of Rhineland-Palatinate, the early resumption of the Mainz carnival driving the city in a positive development after the war.

The City Plan of by Ernst May allowed a regulated reconstruction for the first time. At the time of the two-thousand-years-anniversary in the city was largely reconstructed.

During the s and s the Oberstadt had been extended, Münchfeld and Lerchenberg added as suburbs, the Altstadttangente intersection of the old town , new neighbourhoods as Westring and Südring contributed to the extension.

By there remained only a few ruins. The town used Jacobsens activity for the Danish Novo erecting a new office and warehouse building to contact him.

The urban renewal of the old town changed the inner city. During the s the Kisselberg between Gonsenheim and Bretzenheim, the "Fort Malakoff Center" at the site of the old police barracks, the renewal of the Main Station and the demolition of the first post-war shopping center at the Markt followed by the erection of a new historicising building at the same place.

The city of Mainz is divided into 15 local districts according to the main statute of the city of Mainz. Each local district has a district administration of 13 members and a directly elected mayor, who is the chairman of the district administration.

This local council decides on important issues affecting the local area, however, the final decision on new policies is made by the Mainz's municipal council.

In accordance with section 29 paragraph 2 Local Government Act of Rhineland-Palatinate , which refers to municipalities of more than , inhabitants, the city council has 60 members.

Until , the districts of Bischofsheim now an independent town , Ginsheim-Gustavsburg which together are an independent town belonged to Mainz.

The former suburbs Amöneburg, Kastel, and Kostheim — in short, AKK are now administrated by the city of Wiesbaden on the north bank of the river.

The coat of arms of Mainz is derived from the coat of arms of the Archbishops of Mainz and features two six-spoked silver wheels connected by a silver cross on a red background.

Mainz is home to a Carnival , the Mainzer Fassenacht or Fastnacht , which has developed since the early 19th century. Carnival in Mainz has its roots in the criticism of social and political injustices under the shelter of cap and bells.

Today, the uniforms of many traditional Carnival clubs still imitate and caricature the uniforms of the French and Prussian troops of the past. The height of the carnival season is on Rosenmontag "rose Monday" , when there is a large parade in Mainz, with more than , people celebrating in the streets.

The first ever Katholikentag , a festival-like gathering of German Catholics, was held in Mainz in Johannes Gutenberg , credited with the invention of the modern printing press with movable type, was born here and died here.

Since the Mainzer Johannisnacht commemorates the person Johannes Gutenberg in his native city. The Mainz University , which was refounded in , is named after Gutenberg ; the earlier University of Mainz that dated back to had been closed down by Napoleon's troops in Mainz was one of three important centers of Jewish theology and learning in Central Europe during the Middle Ages.

Known collectively as Shum , the cities of Speyer , Worms and Mainz played a key role in the preservation and propagation of Talmudic scholarship.

There are also a couple of radio stations based in Mainz. The local football club 1. FSV Mainz 05 has a long history in the German football leagues.

Since it has competed in the Bundesliga First German soccer league except a break in second level in —08 season. Mainz is closely associated with renowned coach Jürgen Klopp , who spent the vast majority of his playing career at the club and was also the manager for seven years, leading the club to Bundesliga football for the first time.

In the summer the club opened its new stadium called Coface Arena. The local wrestling club ASV Mainz is currently in the top division of team wrestling in Germany, the Bundesliga.

As a result of the invasion of Georgia by Russian troops, Mainz acted as a neutral venue for the Georgian Vs Republic of Ireland football game.

Its men's team is playing in the Regionalliga and its women's team is playing in the 2. It was founded on 9 September [26] by Berno Wischmann primarily for students of the University of Mainz.

It is considered one of the most powerful Athletics Sports clubs in Germany. In particular in the decathlon dominated USC athletes for decades: In the all-time list of the USC, there are nine athletes who have achieved more than 8, points — at the head of Siegfried Wentz points in and Guido Kratschmer world record with points.

Three world titles adorn the balance of USC Mainz. For the discus thrower Lars Riedel attended and and the already mentioned sprinter Marion Wagner Added to 5 titles at the European Championships, a total of 65 international medals and victories at the German Athletics Championships.

The Athletics is one of the largest clubs in the Baseball-Bundesliga Süd in terms of membership, claiming to have hundreds of active players.

The club has played in the Baseball-Bundesliga for more than two decades, and has won the German Championship in and Mainz is one of the centers of the German wine economy [29] as a center for wine trade and the seat of the state's wine minister.

Due to the importance and history of the wine industry for the federal state, Rhineland-Palatinate is the only state to have such a department.

The sparkling wine producer Kupferberg produced in Mainz-Hechtsheim and even Henkell — now located on the other side of the river Rhine — had been founded once in Mainz.

The famous Blue Nun , one of the first branded wines, had been marketed by the family Sichel. Mainz had been a wine growing region since Roman times and the image of the wine town Mainz is fostered by the tourist center.

The Haus des Deutschen Weines English: House of German Wine , is located in beside the theater. The Mainzer Weinmarkt wine market is one of the great wine fairs in Germany.

Johann-Joseph Krug , founder of France's famous Krug champagne house in , was born in Mainz in Mainz is a major transport hub in southern Germany.

It is an important component in European distribution, as it has the fifth largest inter-modal port in Germany.

The Port of Mainz , now handling mainly containers, is a sizable industrial area to the north of the city, along the banks of the Rhine.

In order to open up space along the city's riverfront for residential development, it was shifted further northwards in Mainz Central Station or Mainz Hauptbahnhof , is frequented by 80, travelers and visitors each day and is therefore one of the busiest 21 stations in Germany.

Additionally, the Mainbahn line to Frankfurt Hbf starts at the station. Access to the East Rhine Railway is provided by the Kaiserbrücke , a railway bridge across the Rhine at the north end of Mainz.

Mainz offers a wide array of bicycle transportation facilities and events, including several miles of on-street bike lanes.

Mainz is served by Frankfurt Airport , the busiest airport by passenger traffic in Germany by far, the third busiest in Europe and the ninth busiest worldwide in Located about 10 miles 16 kilometres east of Mainz, it is connected to the city by an S-Bahn line.

Mainz has a number of different names in other languages and dialects. Its former English name Mentz is shared by two American cities named in its honor.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the city in Germany. For the light cruiser, see SMS Mainz. For the Mainz sword, see Gladius.

List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany. Statistisches Landesamt Rheinland-Pfalz in German. Retrieved 11 June Mainz als römische Hafenstadt.

Die Römer und ihr Erbe. Fortschritt durch Innovation und Integration. Retrieved 21 September Few leaders have been as loved and as popular as Drusus.

He fell from his horse in 9 BC, contracted gangrene and lingered several days. His brother Tiberius reached him in just a few days riding post-horses over the Roman roads and served as the chief mourner, walking with the deceased in a funeral procession from the summer camp where he had fallen to Mogontiacum, where the soldiers insisted on a funeral.

The body was transported to Rome, cremated in the Campus Martis and the ashes placed in the tomb of Augustus , who was still alive, and wrote poetry and delivered a state funeral oration for him.

If Drusus founded Mogontiacum the earliest date is the start of his campaign, 13 BC. Some hypothesize that Mogontiacum was constructed at one of two earlier opportunities, one when Marcus Agrippa campaigned in the region in 42 BC or by Julius Caesar himself after 58 BC.

Lack of evidence plays a part in favoring 13 BC. No sources cite Mogontiacum before 13 BC, no legions are known to have been stationed there, and no coins survive.

There is no evidence for this supposedly wealthy man or his estate, but there is plenty for the god. As the loyalty of the Vangiones was unquestioned and Drusus was campaigning over the Rhine, it is unlikely Mogontiacum would have been built to collect taxes from the Vangiones, who were not a Roman municipium.

Random House Digital, Inc. Retrieved 27 August An Encyclopedic Reference to U. Johannis church and old university after an Allied air attack. In the Wake of War: The Tao Of The City p.

Eisenhuth in der Mainzer Rhein-Zeitung vom 9. Website Linguasport — Sport History and Statistics. Retrieved 25 November Archived from the original on Archived from the original on 12 March Retrieved 12 March Bibliography of the history of Mainz.

Places adjacent to Mainz. Koblenz Wiesbaden Frankfurt Trier. Capitals of states of the Federal Republic of Germany. Cities in Germany by population.

Berlin Cologne Hamburg Munich. The club spent the next four seasons in the Oberliga Südwest as a top of the table side, culminating in a second-place finish in and a league championship the year after.

Each of those cup wins entitled the club to enter the German Cup where it was knocked out in the first round at each occasion.

Another three good seasons in the Oberliga Südwest followed in which Mainz 05 II finished third, second and, eventually in , league champions again.

The first season there saw the club come fifth, the following three seasons after that it finished much lower. Another change in the league system in saw the introduction of the Regionalliga Südwest , in which Mainz 05 II was now placed.

In this league te club came eleventh in its first season there. The —14 Regionalliga season saw the best performance of the club at this level, finishing third.

Because runners-up SC Freiburg II declined the opportunity to take part in the promotion round, choosing not to apply for a 3.

Liga license, Mainz received its spot instead. FSV Mainz 05 II plays its home games in the Bruchwegstadion which hosts 20, spectators and used to be the home ground of the first team until it moved to the Coface Arena in Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules.

Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. The recent season-by-season performance of the club: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Club Players Managers Reserve team Seasons. Liga Promotion to 2. Retrieved from " https: Articles with German-language external links.

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